21 Sep 2009, 11:04am
The 2009 Fire Season
by admin

Station Fire Damage Assessment in Progress

Do wildfires provide benefits? Or do wildfires inflict short- and long-term deficits and damages to landscapes: vegetation, wildlife, habitat, air, soils, watersheds as well as homes destroyed, other property losses, suppression costs, public health and safety emergency expenditures, etc.

Setting aside for the moment the $100 million suppression costs, as yet untallied emergency services costs, and the value loss of private homes and property, did the Station Fire provide “resource benefits”?

No, as a matter of fact, the environmental crisis is ongoing and long-lasting. The steep and now denuded slopes of the San Gabriel Mountains are expected to undergo massive erosion, mud-debris flows, and flash floods when the expected winter rain storms occur. More homes and roads will be destroyed by mudslides. Vegetation, wildlife, and people will be damaged again.

The San Gabriel Valley Tribune reports that a bevy of environmental experts will be documenting and assessing the damages, and suggesting and implementing mitigation actions (more costs) where they might do some good (prevent more damages).

Station Fire studied by experts looking at the forest’s future

By Thomas Himes, San Gabriel Valley Tribune, 09/19/2009 [here]

ANGELES NATIONAL FOREST - A team of 45 scientists, economists and engineers have been commissioned by the US Forest Service to document Station Fire losses, predict the future impact of those losses and make recommendations to minimize risks in the future.

The Station Fire charred plant life and seared soil as it burned across 160,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest.

Before the fire, healthy shrubs and soil diffused and absorbed rainfall as it made its way down mountainsides to rivers and reservoirs, according to US Forest Service soil scientist Eric Nicita.

“If it rains on unburned areas, little plants act like pumps” and soil absorbs water into roots and the water table Nicita said.

But the Station Fire has made healthy shrubs and soil a scarce commodity in the Angeles National Forest, according to Nicita.

In burned areas, “hydrophobic compounds turn into gases and puts a wax like coating on the soil,” Nicita said. “The longer water has to accumulate, the greater the chance it has to cause erosion.” …

Note: for a recent excellent study on soil sealing, see Causes of Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion: Water Repellency, Cover, or Soil Sealing? by Isaac J. Larsen et. al. [here].

While scientists agree that plant life and soil will eventually recover, in the meantime mountainsides could become conveyors of mud slides, sediment can block rivers and the delicate process of watershed that starts in the Angeles National Forest and ends below ground in the water table, or the Pacific Ocean, could be devastated, according to officials.

“There will be flooding and there could be debris slides,” Los Angeles County Public Department of Works spokesman Gary Bouze said. “We do have flood channel systems to handle that, but we are concerned by the size of this fire.”

“Water won’t be able to infiltrate as well as it did pre-fire, the biggest thing is it increases your peak flows,” Wright said. “We are currently using several different (computer) programs to model what we might expect from different storm events.”

Note to LA County Public Works: predicting maximum precipitation events across landscapes is neither simple nor certain. I have friends who are world-class PMP experts. Call me.

Keith Stockman is one of several economists who performs “cost/value analysis” to help determine what, if any, preventive measure will be recommend by the team.

“I try to help the team stay focused on which dangers are going to cause market concern,” Stockman said. “If those values are a high-risk situation, we will discuss some treatment options.”

Possible treatments range from constructing log barriers to laying down mulch.

“Mulch reduces water energy and provides cover for vegetation,” Stockman said.

However, the steep mountainsides and canyons of the Angeles National may render many of those treatments inadequate.

“There’s a lot of treatments, but what we want to do is make sure those treatments are effective,” Stockman said. “It’s really a case-by-case basis.”

It’s good to see an economist aboard. It would also be useful to see a documented study of the comprehensive economic impacts, to-date and into the future, using empirical data and models where necessary. The US Wildfire Cost-Plus-Loss Economics Project [here] has developed a general ledger and citation database to aid your assessment efforts. Contact us.

The losses include devastation of wildlife habitat and endangered species populations:

Flooding could also devastate endangered populations of frogs and fish in the national forest, according to wildlife biologist Mark Stamer.

“If we lose whole populations on this mountain range that’s a huge deal,” he said.

The mountain yellow-legged frog, Santa Ana sucker, Speckled Dace and Arroyo Chub are among the species that could be carried into the ocean and flood channels to die.

“Because of urbanization, they’re going to get washed into debris basins,” Stamer said. “When those basins are flushed out, those species will be flushed out and they wont be able to repopulate upstream.”

A number of large mammals such as deer and bears, have already sustained losses to their population.

“This fire moved so fast, and was so large, animals couldn’t escape,” Stamer said.

The ability of those animal species to survive as the forest recovers is also in question.

“Under normal conditions they could survive,” Stamer said. “But because you have this island of habitat that’s been significantly reduced by development, they have nowhere to go.”

The economic impact of the loss of habitat and species has been the topic of many studies and court decisions, so there is a wealth of references to draw upon. Feel free to contact the US Wildfire Cost-Plus-Loss Economics Project [here] for assistance.

The habitat loss could be permanent:

Foreign and invasive species of plants also bear a threat to the barren mountain slopes and eco-system of the forest, according to the executive director of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council Nancy Steele.

Steele is concerned individuals will try to reseed or plant trees in the burned areas.

While well intentioned, these acts can cause more harm than good, according to Steele.

“The seed mixes are generic for all California… so you can get all sorts of non-native things growing,” she said. “Plus no matter how good the mix, there is always some percent of weed seeds.”

Inadequate attention has been paid to the 13,000+ year anthropogenic fire regime and the significance of historical human impacts to the ecosystem. Watershed councils everywhere should devote next year or two or three to study of the human history and actual, historical vegetation development in their locale during the Holocene.

Ecology is a historical science, after all. Theories of ecological dynamics must comport with the observed, documented evidence or be cast aside for better theories that do comport. A better understanding of what really happened, with recognition of human impact, is a vital element of successful restoration and rehabilitation of landscapes everywhere.

The immediate concerns are potential mudslides, however:

But perhaps those most at risk from damage sustained in the Station Fire are homeowners who live directly below burned mountainsides.

The Department of Public Works is urging those homeowners to contact them for on advice on how to best protect their homes, said Mark Pestrella - deputy director of the county Department of Public Works.

The US Forest Service team is scheduled to conclude their report and make recommendations to local and federal authorities Thursday, according to US Forest Service public information officer Richard Hadley.

And the losses from the Station Fire will continue to mount for many years, perhaps decades.

A comprehensive assessment and accounting of costs and losses from the fire will hopefully crystallize a key question:

“Can we afford these fires? Is there a better, cheaper way to go?”

Yes, there is, or are. Restoration of heritage vegetation types and human influences (controlled burning) on the uninhabited portions of the landscape would be much cheaper than wildfire while preventing or mitigating much of the costs and losses, economic and environmental, from wildfires.

It is much cheaper to tend the landscape in an ecologically sensitive and historically informed manner than to do little or nothing, that is: to invite mega wildfires with all their disastrous consequences.

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